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BMI index

BMI index
It is a semi-accurate indicator of body fat percentage and obesity.
The BMI value changes with weight and height, and a range of ranges expresses each person's weight status.
The BMI value is expressed in kilograms per square meter (kg/m2).
BMI values ​​include:

  • Underweight: BMI value less than 18.5
  • Normal weight: BMI between 18.5 - 24.9
  • Overweight: BMI of 25 - 29.9
  • Obesity Grade 1: BMI 30 - 34.9
  • Obesity Grade 2: a BMI of 35–39.9
  • Obesity Grade 3: a body mass index greater than 40.

The BMI value alone cannot be used to estimate a healthy weight, however, the BMI is the most important criterion among the other criteria. Other reliable methods for estimating weight include:

  • Waist circumference measurement
  • Skin thickness measurement
  • DEXA test


Body Mass Index (BMI) is the most popular tool for calculating weight and estimating the rate of healthy weight and obesity. It is based on BMI to estimate the amount of fat in the body. BMI is not only based on weight, but rather on the weight-to-height ratio that makes up the body area.

Body mass index is calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms by the height in square metres, in order to arrive at a value that expresses the weight status in relation to a person's height. BMI is used to avoid the difference in normal weight between one person and another according to height. BMI does not calculate weight at all, but rather helps in calculating weight in relation to height and estimating body area, which provides greater benefit in determining a healthy weight for each person.

For most people, BMI is related to the amount of fat in the body, the higher the BMI value, the higher the amount of fat. There are some cases where this measurement is not accurate, and BMI alone is not enough to tell if a person is in good health. BMI is used in combination with other methods to assess the general condition and risk of disease in different people.

BMI benefits

BMI offers several benefits including:

  • Estimation of healthy weight and overweight or underweight for each person according to his condition
  • BMI helps assess overall health and is useful in determining the risk of diseases resulting from obesity and excess body fat.
  • Relying on BMI is useful in determining the best diet and setting clear goals for reaching a healthy weight.

Body mass index uses

BMI is used to assess the weight, health status and amount of body fat in adults, as well as to estimate the risk of obesity, such as diabetes and heart disease.

BMI cannot be relied upon to estimate weight in children and adolescents, because their developmental phase is not yet finished. The use of BMI is also inaccurate in pregnant women due to weight gain during pregnancy. A specialist doctor can use other means designed to measure and estimate a healthy weight in both cases.

BMI should also not be used for:

  • Athletes and people with very large muscle mass
  • People over 65 years of age
  • People with muscular dystrophy

Risk assessment using body mass index (BMI)

If your BMI value is less than 18.5, this means that you are underweight to a lesser degree than normal, which may increase your risk of developing a number of problems, including:

  • Malnutrition
  • Anemia
  • The weakened immune system, can cause a number of problems and increase the risk of infection
  • Osteoporosis
  • infertility

If you are obese or overweight (a BMI value of more than 25) you may be at a higher risk of developing a large number of diseases, and the risk increases with an increase in your BMI value. Possible risks include:

  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Brain attack
  • Hypertension
  • Gallstones
  • Arthritis
  • Sleep problems and obstructive sleep apnea
  • Cancer, especially colon and breast cancer
  • Depression and mental health problems

Determinants of the use of body mass index

There are some barriers and limitations to using BMI, including:

  • BMI is not useful in determining the type of weight. Normal weight resulting from the presence of bone, muscle, and other tissues in the skin is different from being overweight due to fat. Therefore, some people may have an elevated BMI due to greater muscle mass rather than obesity.
  • BMI is used to assess men and women in the same way, although women have more fat